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Traduire Material Transfer Agreement

Second concrete example, Addgene has become an important non-profit plasmid sharing resource; Since 2004, it has delivered more than 950,000 plasmids to more than 6,400 institutions in 93 countries. Technology transfer offices greatly appreciate the services offered by additives, including the electronic processing of A.A. However, since UBMTA was the default standard at the time of development of Addgene`s MTA electronic system, biotechnology commercial researchers cannot directly access most of the resources available through additives. This MTA-induced restriction occurs although many of the materials hosted by Addgene are not subject to a specific proprietary interest. Although well-funded business groups can access these materials from the outset through DNA synthesis, from sequences available on Addgene`s website or other public databases, companies that could benefit most from these materials – small start-ups or small and medium-sized enterprises that represent the elixir of life and the future of biotechnology – are excluded. Failure to comply with restrictive conditions, which may not be necessary or proportionate in a uniform manner, is a common practice for other repositories, including non-profit cultural collections, biobanks, gene banks, sperm banks and other plasmid deposits established in recognition of their importance to different biotechnology communities. While biological materials were previously freely transferred, the formalization of exchanges with these materials has shifted markedly, notably through the use of Material Transfer Agreements (SAAs). This article examines how risk aversion dominates MTA negotiations and its impact on scientific progress. Risk aversion is often based on unjustified fears of becoming responsible for the use of a material, loss of control or lack of marketing opportunities. So far, the evidence shows that complexity, despite considerable efforts to implement standard simple A.A., tends to permeate simple transactions. We argue that, in most cases, ATMs need to do little more than determine provenance, and any attempt to extend EPAs beyond this simple function is suffocating behaviour. Using examples of available good practice, we highlight a series of strategies that can be used wisely to reduce risky trends, including promoting simplicity, training those involved in the MTA process, and achieving a cultural shift in how to measure the success of Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) in institutions, use MTAs….

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